AR-461: BUILDING SCIENCE
Department of Architecture and Planning
LECTURE NO. 05
The term mechanical may refer to as using machines instead of manual means of doing some work. The phrase static method may refer to as, a method that does not need an explicit object reference. The mechanical method is the method in which machines are used whereas; the static method is that which is based on the nature or a work done through natural means. Humidity is a term used for the amount of water vapor in air; whereas temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. Thus; the theme of current lecture is quite explicit that it is a discussion about the natural and manmade methods of controlling the hot and cold air as well as moisture in the air within an internal space or in other words it is the discussion about HVAC systems.
In order to learn the mechanical and static method of humidity and temperature control at first it is important to understand some basic themes or ask some basic questions such as; what is humidity? What is temperature? How humidity and temperature is controlled in an internal space and in buildings of small and large scale? Then; what are the mechanical and static methods of humidity and temperature control? In the following all these questions shall be answered in an amicable and appropriate manner.
WHAT IS HUMIDITY?
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of air and water vapor, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture, called the Absolute humidity. In everyday usage, it commonly refers to relative humidity, expressed as a percent in weather forecasts and on household humidistats; it is so called because it measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the dry air content. The water vapor content of the mixture can be measured either as mass per volume or as a partial pressure, depending on the usage.
In meteorology, humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. High relative humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather.
TYPES OF HUMIDITY:
Absolute humidity (Volume basis)
Absolute humidity on a volume basis is the quantity of water in a particular volume of air. The most common units are grams per cubic meter, although any mass unit and any volume unit could be used. Pounds per cubic foot are common in the U.S. and occasionally even other units mixing the Imperial and metric systems are used.
If all the water vapor in one cubic meter of air were condensed into a container, the mass of the water in the container could be measured with a scale to determine absolute humidity. The amount of water vapor in that cube of air is the absolute humidity of that cubic meter of air. More technically, absolute humidity on a volume basis is the mass of dissolved water vapor, mw, per cubic meter of total moist air, Vnet:
Absolute humidity ranges from 0 grams per cubic meter in dry air to 30 grams per cubic meter (0.03 ounce per cubic foot) when the vapor is saturated at 30 °C.
The absolute humidity changes as air pressure changes. This is very inconvenient for chemical engineering calculations, e.g. for clothes dryers, where temperature can vary considerably. As a result, absolute humidity is generally defined in chemical engineering as mass of water vapor per unit mass of dry air, also known as the mass mixing ratio (see below), which is much more rigorous for heat and mass balance calculations. Mass of water per unit volume as in the equation above would then be defined as volumetric humidity. Because of the potential confusion, British Standard BS 1339 (revised 2002) suggests avoiding the term "absolute humidity". Units should always be carefully checked. Most humidity charts are given in g/kg or kg/kg, but any mass units may be used. The field concerned with the study of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures is named Psychrometrics.
Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor (in a gaseous mixture of air and water vapor) to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. In other words, relative humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air at a specific temperature compared to the maximum water vapor that the air is able to hold without it condensing, at that given temperature.
Relative humidity is an important metric used in weather forecasts and reports, as it is an indicator of the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. In hot summer weather, a rise in relative humidity also increases the apparent temperature to humans (and other animals) by hindering the evaporation of perspiration from the skin as the relative humidity rises. For example, according to the Heat Index, a relative humidity of 75% at 80°F (27°C) would feel like 83.574°F ±1.3 °F (28.652°C ±1.7 °C) at ~44% relative humidity.
Specific humidity is the ratio of water vapor to air (including water vapor and dry air) in a particular mass. Specific humidity ratio is expressed as a ratio of kilograms of water vapor, mw, per kilogram of total moist air mt.
There are various devices used to measure and regulate humidity. A device used to measure humidity is called a psychrometer or hygrometer. A humidistat is used to regulate the humidity of a building with a dehumidifier. These can be analogous to a thermometer and thermostat for temperature control. Humidity is also measured on a global scale using remotely placed satellites. These satellites are able to detect the concentration of water in the troposphere at altitudes between 4 and 12 kilometers. Satellites that can measure water vapor have sensors that are sensitive to infrared radiation. Water vapor specifically absorbs and re-radiates radiation in this spectral band. Satellite water vapor imagery plays an important role in monitoring climate conditions (like the formation of thunderstorms) and in the development of future weather forecasts.
EFFECTS OF HUMIDITY ON HUMAN COMFORT:
Humans control their body temperature mainly by sweating and shivering. The United States Environmental Protection Agency cites the ASHRAE Standard 55-1992, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, which recommends keeping relative humidity between 30% and 60%. At high humidity, sweating is less effective, and we feel hotter. Air conditioning works by reducing humidity in summer. In winter, heating cold outdoor air can decrease relative humidity levels indoor to below 30%, leading to discomfort such as dry skin and excessive thirst.
EFFECTS OF HUMIDITY ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION:
Traditional building designs typically had weak insulation, and it allowed air moisture to flow freely between the interior and exterior. The energy-efficient, heavily-sealed architecture introduced in the 20th century also sealed off the movement of moisture, and this has resulted in a secondary problem of condensation forming in and around walls, which encourages the development of mold and mildew. Additionally, buildings with foundations not properly sealed will allow water to flow through the walls due to capillary action, notably cement which is a good conductor of water. Solutions for energy-efficient buildings that avoid condensation are a current topic of architecture.
Refrigeration air conditioning equipment usually reduces the humidity of the air processed by the system. The relatively cold (below the dew point) evaporator coil condenses water vapor from the processed air (much like an ice-cold drink will condense water on the outside of a glass), sending the water to a drain and removing water vapor from the cooled space and lowering the relative humidity. Since humans perspire to provide natural cooling by the evaporation of perspiration from the skin, drier air (up to a point) improves the comfort provided. The comfort air conditioner is designed to create a 40% to 60% relative humidity in the occupied space. In food retailing establishments, large open chiller cabinets act as highly effective air dehumidifying units. A specific type of air conditioner that is used only for dehumidifying is called a dehumidifier. A dehumidifier is different from a regular air conditioner in that both the evaporator and condenser coils are placed in the same air path, and the entire unit is placed in the environment that is intended to be conditioned (in this case dehumidified), rather than requiring the condenser coil to be outdoors. Having the condenser coil in the same air path as the evaporator coil produces warm, dehumidified air. The evaporator (cold) coil is placed first in the air path, dehumidifying the air exactly as a regular air conditioner does. The air next passes over the condenser coil re-warming the now dehumidified air. Note that the terms "condenser coil" and "evaporator coil" do not refer to the behavior of water in the air as it passes over each coil; instead they refer to the phases of the refrigeration cycle. Having the condenser coil in the main air path rather than in a separate, outdoor air path (as in a regular air conditioner) results in two consequences—the output air is warm rather than cold, and the unit is able to be placed anywhere in the environment to be conditioned, without a need to have the condenser outdoors.
Unlike a regular air conditioner, a dehumidifier will actually heat a room just as an electric heater that draws the same amount of power (watts) as the dehumidifier. A regular air conditioner transfers energy out of the room by means of the condenser coil, which is outside the room (outdoors). This is a thermodynamic system where the room serves as the system and energy is transferred out of the system. Conversely with a dehumidifier, no energy is transferred out of the thermodynamic system (room) because the air conditioning unit (dehumidifier) is entirely inside the room. Therefore all of the power consumed by the dehumidifier is energy that is input into the thermodynamic system (the room), and remains in the room (as heat). In addition, if the condensed water has been removed from the room, the amount of heat needed to boil that water has been added to the room. This is the inverse of adding water to the room with an evaporative cooler.
Dehumidifiers are commonly used in cold, damp climates to prevent mold growth indoors, especially in basements. They are also sometimes used in hot, humid climates for comfort because they reduce the humidity which causes discomfort (just as a regular air conditioner, but without cooling the room). They are also used to protect sensitive equipment from the adverse effects of excessive humidity in tropical countries. The engineering of physical and thermodynamic properties of gas-vapor mixtures is named Psychrometrics.
WHAT IS TEMPERATURE?
Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. Quantitatively, temperature is measured with thermometers, which may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. Much of the world uses the Celsius scale (°C) for most temperature measurements. It has the same incremental scaling as the Kelvin scale used by scientists, but fixes its null point, at 0°C = 273.15K, the freezing point of water. Historically, the Celsius scale was a purely empirical temperature scale defined only by the freezing and boiling points of water. Since the standardization of the Kelvin in the International System of Units, it has subsequently been redefined in terms of the equivalent fixing points on the Kelvin scale. A few countries, most notably the United States, use the Fahrenheit scale for common purposes, a historical scale on which water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F. Macroscopically, temperature is related to the thermal energy held by matter. An immediate way of sensing this is by touching the material and deciding whether it is hot, warm, or cold. A thermometer precisely measures the temperature and indicates a numerical value for the temperature.
Temperature control is a process in which change of temperature of a space and objects collectively there within is measured or otherwise detected, and the passage of heat energy into or out of the space is adjusted to achieve a desired average temperature.
A home thermostat is an example of a closed control loop: It constantly assesses the current room temperature and controls a heater and/or air conditioner to increase or decrease the temperature according to user-defined setting(s). A simple (low-cost, cheap) thermostat merely switches the heater or air conditioner either on or off, and temporary overshoot and undershoot of the desired average temperature must be expected. A more expensive thermostat varies the amount of heat or cooling provided by the heater or cooler, depending on the difference between the required temperature (the "setpoint") and the actual temperature. This minimizes over/undershoots. The process is called PID and is implemented using a PID Controller.
An object's or space's temperature increases when heat energy moves into it, increasing the average kinetic energy of its atoms, e.g., of things and air in a room. Heat energy leaving an object or space lowers its temperature. Heat flows from one place to another (always from a higher temperature to a lower one) by one or more of three processes: conduction, convection and radiation. In conduction, energy is passed from one atom to another by direct contact. In convection, heat energy moves by conduction into some movable fluid (such as air or water) and the fluid moves from one place to another, carrying the heat with it. At some point the heat energy in the fluid is usually transferred to some other object by means conduction again. The movement of the fluid can be driven by negative-buoyancy, as when cooler and therefore denser air drops and thus upwardly displaces warmer less-dense air natural convection, or by fans or pumps forced convection. In radiation, the heated atoms make electromagnetic emissions absorbed by remote other atoms, whether nearby or at astronomical distance. For example, the Sun radiates heat as both invisible and visible electromagnetic energy. What we know as "light" is but a narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum. If, in a place or thing, more energy is received than is lost, its temperature increases. If the amount of energy coming in and going out is exactly the same, the temperature stays constant—there is thermal balance, or thermal equilibrium.
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humidity (retrieved April 2, 2011)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humidity_control#Humidity_control (retrieved April 2, 2011)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature (retrieved April 2, 2011)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature_control (retrieved April 2, 2011)